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Posted By: Ada Hall

Posted On: January 18th
Views: 118
Managed Competition

Managed Competition
According to the Hastings Center Report (January/February 2008), American healthcare was in a terrible mess. Almost 16 percent of the Americans lacked health insurance; hence, they were facing serious consequences, and many more were underinsured. It was estimated that about 18 thousand of unnecessary deaths occurred every year in the United States due to the lack of insurance.
Another challenge that many families faced was the threatened financial security in that the cost of good medical services was too high. According to some leading experts, the cost exceeded the necessary limit to cover all the uninsured. A lack of reliable and efficient access to health care should not ha been tolerated in the health care system (DeGrazia, 2008).
Even covering only one out of every six Americans, the expenditure on healthcare per capita in relation to a gross domestic product fraction (GDP) was still higher than it was for citizens of any other nation. The overall expenditure on health care rose at about 10 percent per year since 2000. Ford and General Motors had an obligation to pay health insurance premiums (Genc, 2007). However, severally insured patients complained about insurance companies as they restricted them in the choice of doctors and imposed bureaucratic conditions. Due to this, over the years, there had been a widespread perception that managed health care had destroyed the quality of care.
Presently, the citizens are increasingly disappointed with the American healthcare. Taking into consideration this widespread disappointment and the Democrats regaining of power in Congress, it becomes obvious that the reform in health care is inevitable. This is a major issue in the domestic policy. The single payer health insurance merged with competitive private delivery would have more impact on achieving the leading goals of the health reform as suggested by empirical evidence and common sense. Among the current presidential candidates, Edwards and Obama are considered too moderate and conservative, while Kusinich and Gravel promise reform proposals.
In 2008 presidential field, all the candidates were invited to Las Vegas for a health care forum on March 24, 2007. None of the Republican candidates arrived. There were seven Democrats who promised some measures and plans to achieve the goal of universal coverage (DeGrazia, 2008). However, their plans involved significant differences. Five of them planned to retain employment-based health insurance as they introduced such measures as mandates of an employer or an individual and expanded public programs. These were Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, John Edwards, Bill Richardson, and Christopher Dodd.
The other two, Dennis Kucinich and Mikel Gravel, had a contradicting strategy as they planned to favor the abolishment of employment-based insurance. Both of them advocated for the immediate adoption of a single payer system of the national health insurance, which is a system funded by tax that includes anyone as long as he/she is a citizen or a resident. In addition, Mikel Gravel had a plan of combining the single-payer system with the voucher approach. However, Obama and Edwards expressed their eventual plan of moving away from an employment-based system to a single-payer system.
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